Book a demo now and get a Free website audit +10% off - Valid thru Sept 30th

Invigo Blog

How Physical Therapy Billing Units Work: The Complete Guide

“Learn how physical therapy billing units work, including the 8-minute rule and CPT codes, to ensure accurate billing and maximize reimbursement.”

How Physical Therapy Billing Units Work: The Complete Guide - 17

Welcome to the complete guide on how physical therapy billing units work. If you’re a physical therapist, clinic owner, or billing specialist, understanding the ins and outs of billing units is crucial for your practice’s financial health. This guide will provide you with comprehensive information, practical tips, and answers to common questions about physical therapy billing units.


Understanding Physical Therapy Billing Units

Physical therapy billing units refer to the way services are measured and billed. These units are based on the amount of time spent on specific therapeutic procedures and exercises. Accurate billing ensures proper reimbursement from insurance companies and minimizes financial discrepancies.

The 8-Minute Rule

The 8-minute rule is a key concept in physical therapy billing. This rule helps determine the number of billing units based on the time spent on a service. Here’s a breakdown:

  • 1 unit: 8-22 minutes
  • 2 units: 23-37 minutes
  • 3 units: 38-52 minutes
  • 4 units: 53-67 minutes

For example, if you spend 25 minutes on a therapeutic exercise, you can bill for 2 units. This rule ensures that billing accurately reflects the time and effort put into patient care.

Timed vs. Untimed Codes

In physical therapy billing, there are timed and untimed codes. Timed codes require you to track the exact time spent on a service, while untimed codes are billed as a single unit regardless of the time spent. Common untimed codes include evaluations and re-evaluations.

Common Billing Codes

  • 97110: Therapeutic exercises
  • 97112: Neuromuscular re-education
  • 97140: Manual therapy techniques
  • 97530: Therapeutic activities
  • 97161-97163: Evaluation codes

Knowing these codes and how to apply them is essential for accurate billing and reimbursement.


Steps to Accurate Billing

How Physical Therapy Billing Units Work: The Complete Guide - 19

Accurate billing is crucial for the financial health of your physical therapy practice. Follow these steps to ensure precise billing, maximize reimbursements, and minimize errors.

1. Documentation

Accurate documentation forms the backbone of proper billing. Comprehensive notes should detail the services provided, the time spent, and the patient’s progress. This documentation supports your billing claims and serves as a defense in case of audits. Here’s how to ensure thorough documentation:

  • Service Details: Clearly outline the type of therapy provided, including specific exercises, techniques, and modalities used. Describe the purpose and expected outcome of each service.
  • Time Spent: Record the exact time spent on each service. This is crucial for applying the 8-minute rule correctly and ensuring accurate billing units.
  • Patient Progress: Document the patient’s progress in each session. Note any changes in their condition, responses to treatment, and modifications to the treatment plan.

Detailed documentation not only supports billing but also enhances patient care by providing a clear record of their treatment journey.

2. Time Tracking

Accurate time tracking is essential to comply with the 8-minute rule and ensure precise billing. Here’s how to implement effective time tracking:

  • Timers: Use physical timers or digital tools to track the time spent on each therapy session accurately.
  • Billing Software: Invest in billing software that includes time tracking features. These tools automatically record time spent on different activities, reducing manual errors.
  • Consistent Practices: Train your staff to use consistent time tracking methods. Ensure everyone understands the importance of accurate time tracking for billing and reimbursement.

Proper time tracking not only helps in accurate billing but also provides insights into the efficiency and effectiveness of your treatment sessions.

3. Code Selection

Selecting the correct CPT codes for the services provided is crucial for accurate billing. Here’s how to ensure you choose the right codes:

  • CPT Code Manual: Keep a current copy of the CPT code manual in your office. This manual is the authoritative source for selecting appropriate codes.
  • Billing Software: Use billing software with an integrated code database. These tools often include search functions that help you find the correct codes quickly.
  • Staff Training: Regularly train your staff on the latest coding updates and best practices. Understanding the nuances of each code ensures accurate application and maximizes reimbursement.

Choosing the right codes prevents claim denials and ensures you receive proper compensation for the services provided.

4. Billing Units Calculation

Calculating billing units correctly is essential for accurate billing. Follow these steps to ensure your calculations are precise:

  • Apply the 8-Minute Rule: Use the 8-minute rule to determine the number of billing units based on the time spent on each service. Remember the breakdown: 1 unit for 8-22 minutes, 2 units for 23-37 minutes, and so on.
  • Double-Check Calculations: Double-check your calculations to avoid errors. Small mistakes in unit calculation can lead to significant discrepancies in reimbursement.
  • Software Assistance: Utilize billing software that automates unit calculations. These tools reduce manual errors and ensure compliance with billing rules.

Accurate unit calculation ensures you bill correctly for the time and services provided, preventing underbilling or overbilling.

5. Claim Submission

Timely and accurate claim submission is crucial for prompt reimbursement. Follow these steps to streamline the submission process:

  • Prompt Submission: Submit claims to insurance companies promptly after the service is provided. Delays in submission can lead to delayed payments or denials.
  • Complete Documentation: Ensure all required documentation is attached to each claim. This includes detailed service notes, time tracking records, and correct CPT codes.
  • Error-Free Claims: Review each claim for errors before submission. Use billing software that checks for common mistakes and ensures all information is accurate.

Efficient claim submission reduces the chances of denials and speeds up the reimbursement process.

6. Follow-Up

Monitoring the status of submitted claims and following up on any issues is essential for timely reimbursement. Here’s how to manage follow-ups effectively:

  • Claim Tracking: Use billing software to track the status of each claim. These tools provide updates on claim progress and highlight any issues.
  • Regular Monitoring: Regularly monitor the status of submitted claims. Follow up with insurance companies if there are delays or if claims are denied.
  • Address Denials: Address claim denials promptly. Review the reasons for denial, correct any errors, and resubmit the claims with the necessary documentation.

Consistent follow-up ensures that claims are processed efficiently and that you receive reimbursement promptly.


By following these steps to accurate billing, you can ensure your practice’s financial health, reduce errors, and maximize reimbursements. Accurate documentation, precise time tracking, correct code selection, careful unit calculation, timely claim submission, and diligent follow-up are all essential components of an effective billing process.

Investing in reliable billing software and regularly training your staff on best practices can further streamline the process, allowing you to focus on providing exceptional patient care.


Common Challenges and Solutions

How Physical Therapy Billing Units Work: The Complete Guide - 21

1. Insurance Denials

Insurance denials can be frustrating. To minimize denials:

  • Ensure accurate documentation and coding.
  • Verify patient insurance coverage before treatment.
  • Respond promptly to requests for additional information.

2. Underbilling or Overbilling

Accurate time tracking and coding prevent underbilling and overbilling. Regularly audit your billing practices to ensure compliance.

3. Staying Updated

Billing codes and regulations change. Stay updated by attending workshops, subscribing to industry newsletters, and participating in professional organizations.


The Role of Billing Software

Billing software plays a crucial role in streamlining the billing process for physical therapy practices. These tools help manage time tracking, code selection, and claim submission efficiently. By automating these tasks, billing software can significantly reduce errors, save time, and ensure compliance with billing regulations.


How Billing Software Simplifies the Process

  1. Time Tracking: Accurate time tracking is essential for billing based on the 8-minute rule. Billing software automates this process by recording the exact time spent on each service. This automation ensures precise billing units and compliance with insurance requirements.
  2. Code Selection: Choosing the correct CPT codes for services can be complex. Billing software often includes a comprehensive code database with search functionality, making it easier to find and apply the correct codes. This feature reduces the risk of coding errors and ensures accurate billing.
  3. Claim Submission: Submitting claims manually can be time-consuming and prone to errors. Billing software streamlines this process by generating and submitting claims electronically. This efficiency reduces delays, minimizes errors, and speeds up reimbursement.
  4. Error Reduction: Manual billing processes are susceptible to human error. Billing software includes built-in compliance checks that verify the accuracy of documentation, coding, and calculations before claims are submitted. These checks help reduce the likelihood of claim denials and ensure that all submitted claims meet payer requirements.
  5. Financial Management: Effective billing software often includes financial management features such as reporting and analytics. These tools provide insights into the financial health of your practice, helping you track revenue, identify trends, and make informed decisions.


Features to Look for in Billing Software

When selecting billing software for your physical therapy practice, consider the following features to ensure it meets your needs:

  1. Time Tracking: Automated time tracking is essential for ensuring accurate billing. Look for software that records the time spent on each service automatically, reducing the need for manual entry and minimizing errors.
  2. Code Database: Access to a comprehensive and up-to-date code database simplifies code selection. Software that includes search functionality and regularly updates its database will help you choose the correct CPT codes quickly and accurately.
  3. Claim Management: Efficient claim management features streamline the submission and tracking process. Look for software that allows you to generate, submit, and track claims electronically, providing real-time updates on claim status and helping you manage follow-ups.
  4. Compliance Checks: Built-in compliance checks are crucial for reducing errors and denials. Software that verifies the accuracy of documentation, coding, and calculations before submission ensures that your claims meet payer requirements and reduces the risk of rejections.
  5. Integration Capabilities: The ability to integrate with other systems, such as Electronic Health Records (EHR), enhances the efficiency of your billing process. Integration reduces data entry duplication and ensures that all information is accurate and up-to-date.
  6. User-Friendly Interface: A user-friendly interface simplifies the learning curve and ensures that your staff can use the software effectively. Look for software with intuitive navigation, clear instructions, and robust customer support.
  7. Reporting and Analytics: Financial management features such as reporting and analytics provide valuable insights into your practice’s financial performance. These tools help you track revenue, identify trends, and make data-driven decisions.


Recommended Billing Software

Here are three highly recommended billing software options that can enhance the efficiency of your physical therapy practice:

  1. TheraBill: TheraBill is a comprehensive billing and practice management solution designed specifically for physical therapy practices. It offers features such as automated time tracking, a robust code database, electronic claim submission, and detailed reporting. TheraBill’s integration capabilities with EHR systems and user-friendly interface make it a top choice for many practices.
  2. WebPT: WebPT is known for its user-friendly interface and robust features tailored to physical therapy practices. It includes automated time tracking, a comprehensive code database, electronic claim submission, and compliance checks. WebPT also offers integrated practice management tools, such as scheduling and documentation, making it a versatile solution for your practice.
  3. Kareo: Kareo provides integrated billing and practice management tools designed to streamline the entire billing process. It offers features such as automated time tracking, a comprehensive code database, electronic claim submission, and real-time claim tracking. Kareo’s user-friendly interface and powerful analytics tools make it an excellent choice for physical therapy practices looking to enhance their billing efficiency.


Investing in reliable billing software can significantly improve the efficiency and accuracy of your billing process. By automating time tracking, simplifying code selection, streamlining claim submission, and reducing errors through compliance checks, billing software helps ensure that you receive timely and accurate reimbursement for your services.

When choosing billing software for your physical therapy practice, consider features such as automated time tracking, a comprehensive code database, efficient claim management, built-in compliance checks, integration capabilities, a user-friendly interface, and robust reporting and analytics. TheraBill, WebPT, and Kareo are all excellent options that offer these features and can help you optimize your billing process.


How InvigoMedia Supports Your Practice

How Physical Therapy Billing Units Work: The Complete Guide - 23

InvigoMedia offers specialized marketing and practice management services for physical therapy clinics. Their expertise can help you streamline your billing processes and enhance your practice’s efficiency.

Services Offered by InvigoMedia

  • Website Development: Create a professional online presence to attract more patients.
  • SEO: Improve your website’s visibility on search engines.
  • Content Marketing: Engage your audience with informative content.
  • Practice Management: Optimize your clinic’s operations and billing practices.

Why Choose InvigoMedia?

InvigoMedia understands the unique needs of physical therapy clinics. Their tailored solutions help you navigate the complexities of billing and practice management, allowing you to focus on patient care.


Tips for Maximizing Reimbursement

1. Verify Insurance Coverage

Before starting treatment, verify the patient’s insurance coverage. This step ensures that services are covered and reduces the risk of denied claims.

2. Detailed Documentation

Detailed documentation supports your billing claims. Include information on the patient’s condition, treatment provided, and time spent.

3. Regular Audits

Regularly audit your billing practices to identify and correct errors. Audits help maintain compliance and maximize reimbursement.

4. Continuous Education

Stay informed about changes in billing codes and regulations. Continuous education helps you adapt to industry changes and maintain accurate billing practices.

5. Utilize Billing Software

Invest in reliable billing software to streamline the process. Software tools can automate time tracking, code selection, and claim submission.


Additional Tips and Strategies

Communication with Patients

Effective communication with patients about billing procedures and insurance coverage is crucial. Educate them on what to expect in terms of billing and potential out-of-pocket costs. This transparency builds trust and reduces the likelihood of disputes.

Develop a Billing Policy

Establish a clear billing policy for your practice. Outline the payment procedures, timelines, and consequences of late payments. Ensure that patients are aware of this policy from their first visit.

Utilize Electronic Health Records (EHR)

Integrate your billing process with Electronic Health Records (EHR) systems. EHRs streamline documentation, coding, and billing, ensuring that all information is accurate and readily available.

Engage with Professional Associations

Join professional associations such as the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA). These organizations offer resources, training, and updates on billing practices and regulations.

Outsourcing Billing Services

Consider outsourcing your billing services to a professional billing company. This option can be cost-effective and ensure that your billing is handled by experts, reducing the likelihood of errors and denials.


Case Study: Successful Billing Practices


A mid-sized physical therapy clinic struggled with frequent claim denials and delayed reimbursements. The clinic faced cash flow issues and administrative burdens.


The clinic implemented the following strategies:

  1. Invested in Billing Software: Adopted comprehensive billing software to streamline the process.
  2. Staff Training: Conducted regular training sessions on accurate documentation and coding.
  3. Billing Audits: Established regular billing audits to identify and rectify errors.
  4. Insurance Verification: Implemented a protocol for verifying patient insurance coverage before treatment.


Within six months, the clinic saw a 30% reduction in claim denials and a 20% increase in timely reimbursements. The administrative staff reported improved efficiency, and the clinic’s cash flow stabilized.


The Future of Physical Therapy Billing

Telehealth Services

With the rise of telehealth, physical therapy billing is evolving. Ensure your billing practices accommodate telehealth services by staying updated on relevant codes and regulations.

Value-Based Care

The shift towards value-based care focuses on patient outcomes rather than the volume of services provided. This model may impact billing practices, requiring a focus on quality documentation and outcome tracking.

Technological Advancements

Advancements in technology, such as AI and machine learning, are transforming the billing process. These technologies can predict denials, automate coding, and enhance accuracy, making billing more efficient.


Final Thoughts

Mastering physical therapy billing units is crucial for the financial health of your practice. By following the guidelines and strategies outlined in this comprehensive guide, you can improve your billing accuracy, reduce claim denials, and maximize reimbursement.

Partnering with experts like InvigoMedia can further streamline your operations, allowing you to focus on delivering excellent patient care. Stay proactive, invest in the right tools, and keep yourself informed about industry changes to ensure your practice thrives in a competitive healthcare landscape.



Understanding physical therapy billing units is essential for accurate billing and maximizing reimbursement. By following the steps outlined in this guide, you can streamline your billing process, reduce errors, and ensure compliance. Remember to invest in reliable billing software and stay informed about industry changes.

InvigoMedia can support your practice with tailored marketing and management solutions, helping you focus on what you do best – providing exceptional patient care.



What is the 8-minute rule?

The 8-minute rule determines billing units based on the time spent on a service. For every 8-22 minutes, you can bill for 1 unit, 23-37 minutes for 2 units, and so on.

What are CPT codes?

CPT codes are used to describe medical, surgical, and diagnostic services. They standardize billing and help ensure accurate reimbursement.

How can I reduce claim denials?

To reduce claim denials, ensure accurate documentation and coding, verify insurance coverage, and respond promptly to requests for additional information.

Why is accurate documentation important?

Accurate documentation supports billing claims, ensures compliance, and protects your practice in case of audits.

How can billing software help?

Billing software automates time tracking, code selection, and claim submission. It reduces errors, saves time, and streamlines the billing process.

What services does InvigoMedia offer?

InvigoMedia offers website development, SEO, content marketing, and practice management services tailored for physical therapy clinics.

How can I stay updated on billing codes and regulations?

Stay updated by attending workshops, subscribing to industry newsletters, and participating in professional organizations.


We’re Helping You Get To The TOP Of Your Industry… WITHOUT Sacrificing Everything You Love To Get There…